Visual Computing

University of Konstanz
ACM Transactions on Graphics

Procedural Urban Forestry

T. Niese, S. Pirk, M. Albrecht, B. Benes, O. Deussen
Teaser of Procedural Urban Forestry


Paper (.pdf, 21.0MB)


The placement of vegetation plays a central role in the realism of virtual scenes. We introduce procedural placement models (PPMs) for vegetation in urban layouts. PPMs are environmentally sensitive to city geometry and allow identifying plausible plant positions based on structural and functional zones in an urban layout. PPMs can either be directly used by defining their parameters or learned from satellite images and land register data. This allows us to populate urban landscapes with complex 3D vegetation and enhance existing approaches for generating urban landscapes. Our framework’s effectiveness is shown through examples of large-scale city scenes and close-ups of individually grown tree models. We validate the results generated with our framework with a perceptual user study and its usability based on urban scene design sessions with expert users.


  author    = {T. Niese, S. Pirk, M. Albrecht, B. Benes, O. Deussen},
  doi       = {10.1145/3502220},
  journal   = {ACM Transactions on Graphics},
  month     = {apr},
  number    = {2},
  pages     = {1--18},
  publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)},
  title     = {Procedural Urban Forestry},
  volume    = {41},
  year      = {2022}