Visual Computing

University of Konstanz
Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds

Simulation and visualization of adapting venation patterns

M. Alsweis, O. Deussenn, J. Liu
Teaser of Simulation and visualization of adapting venation patterns


Paper (.pdf, 1.5MB)


This paper suggests a procedural biologically motivated method to simulate the development of leaf contours and thegeneration of different levels of leaf venation systems. Leaf tissue is regarded as a viscous, incompressible fluid whose2D expansion is determined by a spatially varying growth rate. Visually realistic development is described by a growthfunction relative elementary growth rate that reacts to hormone (Auxin) sources embedded in the leaf blade. The shapeof the leaf is determined by a set of feature points at the leaf contour. The contour is extracted from images utilizing thecurvature scale space corner detection algorithm. Auxin transport is described by an initial Auxin flow from a source toa sink that is gradually channelized into cells with large amounts of highly polarized transporters. The proposed modelsimulates leaf forms ranging from simple shapes to lobed leaves. The third level of venation system is generated usingcentroidal Voronoi tessellations and minimum spanning trees, whereas the size of each cell within the Voronoi-diagram isrelated to the involved quantity of Auxin.


  author    = {M. Alsweis, O. Deussenn, J. Liu},
  doi       = {10.1002/cav.1723},
  issn      = {1546-427X},
  journal   = {Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds},
  keywords  = {leaf development, Auxin, curvature scale space, botanical simulation, RERG, centroidal Voronoi tessellations, minimum spanning tree},
  note      = {e1723 cav.1723},
  number    = {2},
  pages     = {e1723},
  title     = {Simulation and visualization of adapting venation patterns},
  url       = {},
  volume    = {28},
  year      = {2017}