Visual Computing

University of Konstanz
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics

Tree Modeling with Real Tree-Parts Examples

K. Xie, F. Yan, A. Sharf, O. Deussen, H. Huang, B. Chen


We introduce a 3D tree modeling technique that utilizes examples of real trees to enhance tree creation with realistic structures and fine-level details. In contrast to previous works that use smooth generalized cylinders to represent tree branches, our method generates realistic looking tree models with complex branching geometry by employing an exemplar database consisting of real-life trees reconstructed from scanned data. These trees are sliced into representative parts (denoted as tree-cuts), representing trunk logs and branching structures. In the modeling process, tree-cuts are positioned in space in an intuitive manner, serving as efficient proxies that guide the creation of the complete tree. Allometry rules are taken into account to ensure reasonable relations between adjacent branches. Realism is further enhanced by automatically transferring geometric textures from our database onto tree branches as well as by guided growing of foliage. Our results demonstrate the complexity and variety of trees that can be generated with our method within few minutes. We carry a user study to test the effectiveness of our modeling technique.


  author     = {K. Xie and F. Yan and A. Sharf and O. Deussen and H. Huang and B. Chen},
  doi        = {10.1109/TVCG.2015.2513409},
  issn       = {1077-2626},
  journal    = {IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics},
  keywords   = {solid modelling;3D tree modeling;allometry rules;branching structures;complex branching geometry;fine-level details;geometric textures;real tree-parts examples;real-life trees reconstruction;realism;realistic looking tree models;realistic structures;representative parts slicing;tree branches;tree creation;tree-cuts;trunk logs;Allometry;Computational modeling;Solid modeling;Three-dimensional displays;Tree modeling;Vegetation;Visual analytics;Tree modeling;allometry;data-driven modeling},
  month      = {dec},
  number     = {12},
  pages      = {2608-2618},
  title      = {Tree Modeling with Real Tree-Parts Examples},
  url        = {},
  volume     = {22},
  year       = {2016},

Supplemental Material

Paper (.pdf, 18.8 MB)