Visual Computing

University of Konstanz
Journal of Computer Science and Technology

Real-Time Watercolor for Animation

T. Luft, O. Deussen
Teaser of Real-Time Watercolor for Animation


Paper (.pdf, 1.8 MB)


We present algorithms that allow for real-time rendering of 3D-scenes with a watercolor painting appearance. Our approach provides an appropriate simplification of the visual complexity, imitates characteristic natural effects of watercolor, and provides two essential painting techniques: the wet-on-wet and the wet-on-dry painting. We concentrate on efficient algorithms based on image space processing rather than on an exact simulation. This allows for the real-time rendering of 3D-scenes. During an animation a high frame-to-frame coherence can be achieved due to a stable segmentation scheme. Finally, we seamlessly integrate a smooth illumination into the watercolor renderings using information from the 3D-scene.


  author     = {T. Luft and O. Deussen},
  doi        = {10.1007/s11390-006-0159-9},
  issn       = {1860-4749},
  journal    = {Journal of Computer Science and Technology},
  number     = {2},
  pages      = {159--165},
  title      = {Real-Time Watercolor for Animation},
  url        = {},
  volume     = {21},
  year       = {2006},