Visual Computing

University of Konstanz
ACM Transactions on Graphics

Sketch-based Tree Modeling Using Markov Random Field

X. Chen, B. Neubert, Y. Xu, O. Deussen, S. Kang
Teaser of Sketch-based Tree Modeling Using Markov Random Field


Paper (.pdf, 7.1 MB)


In this paper, we describe a new system for converting a user’s freehand sketch of a tree into a full 3D model that is both complex and realistic-looking. Our system does this by probabilistic optimization based on parameters obtained from a database of tree models. The best matching model is selected by comparing its 2D projections with the sketch. Branch interaction is modeled by a Markov random field, subject to the constraint of 3D projection to sketch. Our system then uses the notion of self-similarity to add new branches before finally populating all branches with leaves of the user’s choice. We show a variety of natural-looking tree models generated from freehand sketches with only a few strokes.


  acmid      = {1409062},
  address    = {New York, NY, USA},
  articleno  = {109},
  author     = {X. Chen and B. Neubert and Y. Xu and O. Deussen and S. Kang},
  doi        = {10.1145/1409060.1409062},
  issn       = {0730-0301},
  issue_date = {December 2008},
  journal    = {ACM Transactions on Graphics},
  keywords   = {Markov random field, geometric modeling, sketching, tree modeling},
  month      = {dec},
  number     = {5},
  numpages   = {9},
  pages      = {109:1--109:9},
  publisher  = {ACM},
  title      = {Sketch-based Tree Modeling Using Markov Random Field},
  volume     = {27},
  year       = {2008},
  url        = {},